COVID-19: hazard, risk, exposure and prevention


  • Andrea Spinazzè DiSAT - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
  • Andrea Cattaneo Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Como
  • Domenico Maria Cavallo Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Como



COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, occupational health, occupational hygiene, risk assessment


Buonanno G, Stabile L, Morawska L. Estimation of airborne viral emission: Quanta emission rate of SARS-CoV-2 for infection risk assessment. Environ Int. 2020, 141:105794. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105794.

Buonanno G, Morawska L, Stabile L. Quantitative assessment of the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Prospective and retrospective applications. Environ Int. 2020;145:106112. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106112.

Cerase A. Rischio e comunicazione. Teorie, modelli, problemi. Egea, Milano, 2017

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ; COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) study authors. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020;395(10242):1973-1987. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9.

Horton R. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet. 2020 Sep 26;396(10255):874. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32000-6.

Ian Mackay, 2020 Disponibile online, ultimo accesso 14 novembre 2020.

Johnson, G. R., Morawska, L., Ristovski, Z.D., Hargreaves, M., Mengersen, K., Chao, C.Y.H., Wan, M.P., Li, Y., Xie, X., Katoshevski, D., Corbett, S. (2011). Modality of human expired aerosol size distributions. Journal of Aerosol Science, 42(12), 839-851. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2011.07.009

Lewis D. Mounting evidence suggests coronavirus is airborne - but health advice has not caught up. Nature. 2020 Jul;583(7817):510-513. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02058-1.

Lindsley, 2016, NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, (disponibile online, ultimo accesso 14 novembre 2020)

Morawska L, Milton DK. It Is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):2311-2313. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa939.

Reason J. Human error: models and management. BMJ. 2000 Mar 18;320(7237):768-70. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7237.768.

Rete Italiana Ambiente e Salute. Inquinamento atmosferico e COVID-19. 2020, disponibile online

Sketchplanations, 2020. Disponibile online, ultimo accesso il 14 novembre 2020.

Spinazzè A, Cattaneo A, Cavallo DM. COVID-19 Outbreak in Italy: Protecting Worker Health and the Response of the Italian Industrial Hygienists Association. Ann Work Expo Health. 2020 Jul 1;64(6):559-564. doi: 10.1093/annweh/wxaa044.

Sturloni G. La comunicazione del rischio per la salute e l’ambiente. Mondadori Università, Firenze, 2020.

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Thornburg NJ, Gerber SI, Lloyd-Smith JO, de Wit E, Munster VJ. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1564-1567. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

WHO - World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. 2020. An unprecedented challenge - Italy’s first response to COVID-19.

Wiles S. & Morris T. Covid-19 and the Swiss cheese system. Disponibile online, ultimo accesso il 14 novembre 2020.

Yan J, Grantham M, Pantelic J, Bueno de Mesquita PJ, Albert B, Liu F, Ehrman S, Milton DK; EMIT Consortium. Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jan 30;115(5):1081-1086. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115..

Yang W, Marr LC. Dynamics of airborne influenza A viruses indoors and dependence on humidity. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21481. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021481..

Zhao L, Qi Y, Luzzatto-Fegiz P, Cui Y, Zhu Y. COVID-19: Effects of Environmental Conditions on the Propagation of Respiratory Droplets. Nano Lett. 2020 Oct 14;20(10):7744-7750. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03331.

Additional Files





Opinions and Comments